5 Historical Facts of Majapahit, the Largest Kingdom in the Archipelago – The discovery of traces of the Majapahit golden age in the Sekarpuro area, Malang, East Java reminds us that there used to be a large kingdom in the archipelago. When we hear the word Majapahit, our memories may return to the history teacher who explained that Majapahit was a large kingdom based in East Java. Some reliable sources say the Majapahit kingdom was in power for a long time, around 1293 to 1500 AD. But unfortunately, there is little historical evidence about Majapahit that can be used as flashbacks. Majapahit is like being swallowed up by the earth, the remains of this former famous kingdom are minimal to find. The exact location where the center of his kingdom is is still a mystery. Instead, Majapahit left more myths and folklore stories. Looking back on Majapahit, here are 5 facts about the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that ruled the archipelago and is considered the largest in Indonesian history.
5 Historical Facts of Majapahit, the Largest Kingdom in the Archipelago
1. Founder of Majapahit
perfisio.com – Majapahit wouldn’t exist if Raden Wijaya didn’t build it. He was the founder and first king of Majapahit who was good at strategy. However, who is Raden Wijaya and where did he come from? Raden Wijaya is a term commonly used to refer to the founder of the Majapahit kingdom by historians. However, when he lived around the 13th century, we did not know the term Raden. The name Wijaya itself is in the Paraton book which was written around the 15th century. In the Nagarakertagama book, it is written that the founder of the Majapahit kingdom was Dyah Wijaya. Dyah is a noble title and the forerunner of the title “Raden”. However, his real name is Nararya Singgramawijaya, according to the Kudadu inscription Wijaya made in 1294.
According to the Pararaton book, Raden Wijaya was the son of Mahisa Cempaka who was the prince of Singasari. He grew up in the Singasari royal palace. However, there is a lot of different information regarding the origin of Raden Wijaya.
2. The heyday and the role of Hayam Wuruk
The kingdom, which stood around 1293 to 1500 AD, reached its peak when it was led by Hayam Wuruk who ruled from 1350 to 1389. Under Hayam Wuruk’s rule, the territory covered the entire archipelago, which extended to Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, the Nusa Islands. Southeast, Maluku, Papua, Tumasik (Singapore) and parts of the Philippine archipelago. About 98 kingdoms at that time were in the hands of Majapahit. Hayam Wuruk became a leader when he was 16 years old. Even though he was very young, his actions to lead the kingdom were contained in Nagarakertagama. It is written that nothing is able to disturb the peace of his government. He is the fourth king of the Majapahit kingdom after inheriting the throne of his mother, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi or daughter of Raden Wijaya.
3. The Supreme Commander of Gajah Mada
The success of Hayam Wuruk cannot be separated from Gajah Mada’s influence. According to Negarakertagama, he was the commander-in-chief, mahapatih, as well as Hayam Wuruk’s right hand man. It is estimated that Gajah Mada was born in the early 14th century among ordinary people. To become part of the royal army, he had to forge himself above other people and to become the Supreme Patih was not free. Gajah Mada is believed to be Lembu Muksa or the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. With this people’s belief, Gajah Mada received very strong legitimacy from all the people of Majapahit, so that it received strong obedience support from the people and great trust from the King. Early in his career, he started as a member of the Bhayangkara warrior. Because of his ability, he was appointed Bekel or Chief of Bhayangkara Soldiers with the task of leading the King’s security forces and bodyguards. In 1321, he was promoted to Patih in Daha, a larger area than before, replacing Arya Tilam. There, Gajah Mada received education, training and guidance from the then Maha Patih Maja Patih, namely Arya Tadah.
Seeing Gajah Mada’s extraordinary ability, it seems that Arya Tadah deliberately recruits Gajah Mada to replace him later.
4. The Palapa Oath The Palapa Oath was actually a political promise uttered by Gajah Mada when he was appointed Maha Patih. This is a promise that is legendary to date and will probably always be remembered. The following is the Palapa Oath as published in the Pararaton book: “Sira Gajah Mada Pepatih amangkubumi tan ayun amukti palapa, sira Gajah Mada:” Huwus seagrass lost to Nusantara, ingsun amukti palapa, seagrass lost to the desert ring, the Seram ring, Tanjungpura, the Haru ring, the Pahang ring, Dompo , ring Bali, Sundanese, Palembang, Tumasik, saman ingsun amukti palapa. ” Meaning: He Gajah Mada, serving as Patih Mangkubumi, does not want to enjoy palapa, he Gajah Mada said: “If you have lost the entire archipelago, I will enjoy palapa: If you have lost to the Desert, Seram, Tanjungpura, Haru, Pahang (Peninsula), Dompo, Bali, Sunda, Palembang, Tumasik (Singapore), at that time I enjoyed palapa. The political promise he really made was to unite the Archipelago, namely an area larger than Indonesia but covering the entire Malay peninsula (Malaysia and Singapore), Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan , Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Bali, Maluku, Papua, to the Darwin region (Australia).
5. The collapse of Majapahit Gajah Mada’s death in 1364 marked the beginning of the decline of Majapahit’s glory. However, no one has been able to confirm the cause of the death of the Supreme Patih. After Gajah Mada died, Hayam Wuruk was devastated and refused to appoint another Maha Pahit. The reason Hayam Wuruk did that was because he was indebted to Gajah Mada who carried the golden peak and respected him a lot.